Monday 22 February 2021

Programming Paradigms in PPL | Programming Language Paradigms | Paradigms in Programming

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Programming Paradigms

                  Programming paradigms are a way to classify  programming languages based on their features. 


Two main types:

1. Imperative

       a. Procedural

       b. Object Oriented

2. Declarative

       a. Functional or Applicative

       b. Logic or Rule based


1. Imperative



X=2, y=3

X=5, y=9


a. Procedural     


Procedure Call


e.g. C, Fortran, ALGOL,COBOL, PL/I, Basic, Pascal


b. Object Oriented   


Classes / Objects


e.g. C++, Java, Python, PHP, Perl, Scala


2. Declarative



Expect result.. Properties


No state get changed


c. Functional / Applicative

e.g. Lisp, Javascript, Racket, Haskell


(+ 3 2)


(- 4 3)


(defun areaofcircle()

(write-line "Enter radius")

(setf radius (read))(setf a (* 3.14 radius radius))

(write-line "Area of circle:")

(write a)



d. Logic / Rule based


e.g. Prolog, Datalog, ASP (Answer Set Programming)


Facts & Rules


Rules / Clauses


H:-B1, B2......Bn


H if B1 and B2 and ..... Bn





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